The education system in Turkey is subject to government supervision and control. through the Ministry of Education, According to the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, the right to education is guaranteed for all.

Education in Turkey is compulsory from the age of six to fourteen. It is free in public universities . Primary schools have an enrollment rate of about 98%.

The school year in educational institutions starts from mid-September or early October and continues to May or early June. There is also a two-week holiday in mid-February.

stages of the educational system

Nursery stage: Education is optional at this stage until the age of six.

Primary education: Basic education is compulsory and free for eight years (five primary years + 3 secondary years), From the age of six to fourteen.

Secondary education: The duration of the secondary school is 4 years, Or teaching in vocational high schools from the age of 15-17/188. Some schools may have an extra year of language study. Most secondary schools are government owned and education is free.

Higher education: the duration of the university is 4 years, Or two years in higher professional institutes. Some universities have an additional six for language learning. under natural conditions, The duration of the master’s study is two years. and PhD from 33 to 5 years. This category includes all educational institutions that provide postgraduate studies, It is under the supervision of the Higher Education Council.

Types of secondary schools

  • Public Secondary Schools: Any student who successfully completes eight years of basic education can attend these schools. If the high school graduates pass the OSS National University Entrance Test, Then they can enroll in higher education institutions. Graduates are awarded a high school diploma.
  • Vocational High Schools: It may take an additional year to complete this stage. Graduates go directly to vocational institutes (duration of two years), in their field of study, if they so desire. The alternative is to enroll in universities according to their specialization for a period of four years, if they pass the university entrance test.
  • Anatolian High Schools: A one-year study of English followed by three years of schooling, Extra hours to study English. Sometimes mathematics and physics classes are taught in English. Other classes in some Anatolian high schools are taught in French or German.
  • High Schools of Excellence: The difference between them and regular high schools is that there is an extra year to study English, The difference between it and the Anatolian schools is that the language of instruction in mathematics and physics classes is always Turkish, and the hours of learning English are fewer.
  • Science High Schools: These schools are public schools for students who demonstrate exceptional skill in science. These competitive high schools specifically train students for higher education in scientific fields. Technical and medical. There are also Anatolian scientific high schools, Where the language of learning mathematics and physics is English.
  • Private secondary schools: Most private secondary schools charge high tuition fees and are very competitive.

Types of higher education institutions

Public Universities: The university system in Turkey is subject to the supervision of the Higher Education Council. Turkey has 104 public universities and 64 private universities (the total number is 1666 higher education institutions), Five of them are located in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Except for public and private universities, There are also higher vocational institutes serving the labor market.

In general, university education takes four years in universities. But some fields take longer, such as medicine, it takes six years, Dentistry and veterinary sciences five years. Graduates from Turkish high schools go directly to their field of specialization such as medicine, law, dentistry and others. Do not ask for any tuition in public schools, Where students pay a small small fee. Students must pass the National University Admission Test in order to enter the university. Graduates from the four-year programs are awarded bachelor’s degrees.

The language of instruction in some public universities is English. French or German, Therefore, correspondence with the university staff and submitting applications for registration in faculties can be done in English, French or German. But, The language of instruction in public universities is mostly Turkish. When applying for a university exam, Knowing the Turkish language is not necessary.

Those who pass the test who know a little Turkish, take the years to acquire skill in the Turkish language.

Graduation levels include master’s and doctoral programs, It is coordinated by institutes in universities. Medical specialization programs are completed within the medical college and training hospitals owned by the Ministry of Health and the Social Security Corporation.

Higher Vocational Institutes: Provides a two-year undergraduate program after high school, It is similar to social universities in the United States. The only difference is that students cannot easily transfer from the four-year universities in the US due to the lack of vacancies in these universities. Graduates must take a national transfer exam and have a high GPA in order to apply to these universities. Graduates from these institutes are awarded a pre-bachelor’s degree.

Private Universities: Private institutions in Turkey acquired the right to establish and develop universities in 1984. It was created with the primary objective of creating a center of excellence in research and higher education. Private universities are taking more active initiatives to select national and international research and education networks.

The language of instruction in most private universities is English. Almost all of them have one year of language learning for those students whose level of English does not match the required level.

Private universities charge tuition fees between 6000 and 20,000. Although they are private universities, they provide financial aid, About 40% of students receive some form of financial assistance.